As herbaceous foliage dies back those weeds that were missed when cultivating through the border during the summer months reveal themselves. With mild temperatures any annuals left to see the winter through may set seed. To avoid this being dispersed have a final sweep through hand weeding these out. Hoeing may not be the answer as moist soil encourages re rooting and negates the work. The attached images show the extensive fibrous roots that these annuals have and the quantity of quality soil that is inadvertently removed during weeding. Get into the habit of shaking off all soil before depositing the weeds for composting. There is no merit in processing soil that can remain in the border indeed less soil in the compost heap should result in faster throughput of the green waste. Just be observant for high value chance seedlings as you progress. In the herbaceous border the mature Onopordum acanthium has dropped seed which has germinated and several seedlings are successfully growing.
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